host = $host; $this->dbUser = $dbUser; $this->dbPass = $dbPass; $this->dbName = $dbName; $this->connectToDb(); } /** * Establishes connection to MySQL and selects a database * @return void * @access private */ function connectToDb() { // Make connection to MySQL server if (!$this->dbConn = @mysql_connect($this->host, $this->dbUser, $this->dbPass)) { trigger_error('Could not connect to server'); $this->connectError = true; // Select database } else if (!@mysql_select_db($this->dbName,$this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Could not select database'); $this->connectError = true; } } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { if ($this->connectError) { return true; } $error = mysql_error($this->dbConn); if (empty($error)) { return false; } else { return true; } } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ function &query($sql) { if (!$queryResource = mysql_query($sql, $this->dbConn)) { trigger_error('Query failed: ' . mysql_error($this->dbConn) . ' SQL: ' . $sql); } else { return new MySQLResult($this, $queryResource); } } } /** * MySQLResult Data Fetching Class * @access public * @package SPLIB */ class MySQLResult { /** * Instance of MySQL providing database connection * @access private * @var MySQL */ var $mysql; /** * Query resource * @access private * @var resource */ var $query; /** * MySQLResult constructor * @param object mysql (instance of MySQL class) * @param resource query (MySQL query resource) * @access public */ function MySQLResult(&$mysql, $query) { $this->mysql = &$mysql; $this->query = $query; } /** * Fetches a row from the result * @return array * @access public */ function fetch() { if ($row = mysql_fetch_array($this->query, MYSQL_ASSOC)) { return $row; } else if ( $this->size() > 0 ) { mysql_data_seek($this->query, 0); return false; } else { return false; } } /** * Returns the number of rows selected * @return int * @access public */ function size () { return mysql_num_rows($this->query); } /** * Returns the ID of the last row inserted * @return int * @access public */ function insertID () { return mysql_insert_id($this->mysql->dbConn); } /** * Checks for MySQL errors * @return boolean * @access public */ function isError() { return $this->mysql->isError(); } /** * Returns an instance of MySQLResult to fetch rows with * @param $sql string the database query to run * @return MySQLResult * @access public */ } ?> Chinese Knife Money of the State of Ming - Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery Information Centre
             
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Chinese Knife Money of the State of Ming

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Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery

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Basic Information

Accession Number:1935C547.602
Collection:Antiquities - Ancient & Mediaeval Coins
Date:480 BC - 255 BC

Notes

The first 'coins' made in China seem to have been miniature bronze hoes (or spades) produced by the kingdom of Zhou in the early sixth century BC. Soon other states were making hoes or coins shaped like model knives. This one comes from the city of Ming, in the modern Shaanxi province. The first emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi, banned these early coins and replaced them by round coins with a square hole in the centre.

Thomas G Barnett Bequest, 1935.

Further Information

Material(s):Bronze
Denomination:Cash - knife money
Currency:China
Place of Origin:Ming, Shaanxi province, China

Associated Places

Dimensions

Height:135 mm
Width:17 mm